Synth

Each synth device generates its audio either from rudimentary source material, from audio files used as samples, or sometimes from coming in via sidechain. Incoming note messages drives these instruments to produce audio output.

FM-4

A four-oscillator FM synthesizer with frequencies set as ratios with offsets, optional self-modulation, a noise generator with a resonant low-pass filter, and a modulation matrix. Each row of the matrix represents one of the four oscillators as a modulation destination, and each column is labeled with the modulation source it represents.

On the far left are four identically equipped sections, representing the four sine oscillator units of the instrument. Oscillator 1 is at top, oscillators 2 and 3 follow, and oscillator 4 is at bottom.

In each unit, the two central controls help determine the sine oscillator's frequency. Each incoming note message is multiplied by the top, unlabeled numeric control to set the oscillator's base frequency for that voice. For example, playing a note message of A4 (440Hz) with a setting of 1.00 triggers that oscillator at 440Hz. Playing A4 again with a setting of 2.00 would set the oscillator to 880Hz, just as a setting of 0.50 would tune the oscillator to 220Hz in this example. This system also allows you to see the frequency settings of two oscillators as a ratio, a very handy way of thinking in FM synthesis.

The numeric control at bottom is an offset, allowing you to then detune each oscillator by a number of Hertz.

The Mod control at the right of each oscillator unit attenuates the output of the oscillator to all frequency modulation connections (this does not affect the audio output of the oscillator). Similarly, the oscillator number in the left of each unit is a button for enabling/disabling that oscillator for modulation purposes (again, the audio output for each oscillator is unaffected by the setting of this toggle).

To the right of oscillator 1 is the N(oise) section. This noise generator is configured somewhat similarly to the oscillators, with a global Mod(ulation) level control at its far right and a button to enable/disable modulation usage at the far left (shown as N).

Between these controls are knobs for the Cutoff frequency and Q of a low-pass filter that the noise generator is connected to, as well as a Drive control that can boost the output signal by up to +48.0 dB.

While the matrix section that follows is somewhat cryptic, it is the heart of the instrument's frequency modulation model. This table shows the individual amounts of modulation between the five generators that we have just discussed. The columns represent the sources of modulation, and the rows represent the four oscillator units, which are the potential frequency modulation destinations. These signal attenuators go from 0 (no signal/modulation) to 999 (the fullest amount of modulation available). In this sense, you could also think of these gain values as percentages of modulation.

[Note]Note

Just remember that the settings in each oscillator and noise generator unit impact the matrix values. Each modulation amount in the grid is scaled by the source's global Mod(ulation) level and is completely bypassed if the modulation enable/disable switch is flipped off.

As an example, let's look at the third column, which is labeled 3. Each of the rows in this column represents one of the respective oscillator units as a destination and the amount of attenuation applied to that particular modulation connection. The first row in this column shows the amount that oscillator 3 modulates the frequency of oscillator 1. Accordingly, the second, third, and fourth rows control the amount that oscillator 3 modulates the frequencies of oscillators 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In any other column, the destinations would be the same but the source would be either a different oscillator (the numbered columns) or the noise generator unit (column N).

And as the example above indicates, oscillator 3 can be set to modulate itself — to effectively "feed back" — by setting the third row attenuator to a value greater than zero. The same is true of all four oscillator units when the output of an oscillator is set to modulate its own matrix input.

The section to the right of the N(oise) and matrix sections is the instrument's audio mixer. Each generator unit has an attenuator for setting the amount of signal that will reach the instrument's audio output. Just as the matrix and other modulation controls did not affect the audio level of each unit, these gain controls do not affect modulation levels in any way.

Beneath the matrix section are controls that belong to the amplitude envelope generator unit (AEG). This module affects the entire instrument's audio output level and can also be routed to additional modulation destinations. After the modulation routing button at left are standard Attack, Decay, Sustain, and Release controls.

To the right of the mixer is another thin vertical section, this one containing assorted global parameters. Pitch allows the pitch of all oscillators to be offset from an octave down (-12 semitones) to an octave up (12). Targeting this parameter with an LFO is an ideal way to create vibrato on this synth. The Glide setting is the amount of time that it takes for each new note to smoothly transition from the previous pitch to the current one. And at bottom are Pan(ning) and Gain controls.

The final section contains the nested device chains along with three toggle buttons and one knob. The MONO button switches the synthesizer to a monophonic mode, allowing only one note to be played at a time. The next two buttons will take effect only when both MONO mode is enabled and you are playing in a legato style. The ST button is a "single trigger" option, which prevents envelopes from retriggering. And the FG button enables a "fingered glide" mode, which creates a subtle portamento between successive notes. Finally, an Output level control is available.

Modulation Sources:

  • AEG (amplitude envelope generator) [polyphonic] - The signal of this instrument's amplitude envelope generator module. (The routing of this module to the instrument's amplitude is hardwired.)

Nested Device Chains:

  • Note - A chain for processing incoming note messages before they reach this device.

  • FX - A chain for processing the device's entire audio output.

Phase-4

A phase-manipulation synthesizer (including phase distortion and phase modulation techniques) with four unique oscillator units, a system of global controls for altering the oscillator units' phase distortion and phase modulation settings together, a unique tuning system for setting frequency relationships, a multimode filter capable of audio-rate modulation, and more.

Each oscillator unit is functionally identical and is distinguished by its color and corresponding letter (Red, Blue, Yellow, and Magenta). The letter at the top left of each oscillator doubles as a bypass toggle for that oscillator unit. There are three ways to control the frequency of each oscillator, all located in the top row of each oscillator's controls, just above the knobs.

The small keyboard icon with arrows around it toggles keyboard tracking on or off. When keyboard tracking is enabled, an offset in semitones (st) can be set just below. And when keyboard tracking is disabled, a fixed frequency can be set, either in hertz (Hz) or kilohertz (kHz). To the left of this, a RATIO is then applied to the frequency, allowing you to set oscillators relative to each other (in the fashion of 1:1, 3:1, 1:2, 0:1, etc.). Finally, an offset frequency (in Hz) can be applied from the control at the far right of this section. Above that numeric control are two icons for switching between uniform monophonic detune (the single circle icon) or stereo detune (the two overlapping circles), which applies the set detune amount to the left channel and its inverse to the right.

Next, each oscillator has controls for phase distortion. The primary control is SHAPE, which affects the overall amount of phase distortion applied. Above the shape knob is a text menu that can be dragged up or down to change its setting. This is the algorithm being used for phase distortion. Each algorithm determines both the source waveform and the path the waveshape will traverse as the SHAPE parameter is increased. Beside the algorithm is a numeric for formant control. Settings above 1 insert additional sine cycles into the original waveshape. And just above formant is a phase (º) control. This value sets the offset of the original waveform (in degrees). But beyond adjusting the cycle position of the waveform, this control also affects the phase distortion algorithm, producing unique results.

Of the phase modulation parameters, first is the MOD(ulation) knob, which sets the maximum amount of phase modulation allowed from any oscillator source. The individual levels of modulation are then set by the four smaller knobs to the right, each colored to represent their oscillator. (Yes, this includes potential feedback from the selected oscillator itself.)

You will notice an arrow between the SHAPE and MOD parameters. If the arrow is pointing toward MOD, then phase distortion is applied before phase modulation. And if the arrows is instead facing SHAPE, then phase modulation is being applied before phase distortion. Clicking on the arrow rotates it.

And finally, each oscillator has a knob on the far right with a speaker icon beneath it. This is an output volume control, setting to what degree this oscillator is heard as audio.

To the left of the four oscillator units is the global controls section. At top are a PITCH control for adjusting all oscillator frequencies in semitones and a GLIDE control for setting all portamento times. At bottom are global SHAPE and MOD knobs, allowing you to change the maximum phase distortion and phase modulation (respective) amounts for all oscillators together. Additionally, the X–Y pad allows control of these two parameters together by clicking and dragging the 4 ball. And if any individual oscillator has its own SHAPE and MOD controls set below maximum, you may see a ball of that oscillator's color on the X–Y pad as well.

To the right of the oscillator units is the FILTER section. The top row sets the filter's mode, toggling between various filter types: a gentle low-pass filter, a 4-pole low-pass filter, a gentle band-pass filter, a 4-pole band-pass filter, a gentle high-pass filter, a 4-pole high-pass filter, a band-reject filter, and a disabled mode, respectively.

The next row, from left to right, contains drive (DRV), resonance, and feedback controls. Centered beneath these controls is the oversized cutoff frequency control.

To the left of the cutoff frequency knob are four more small knobs, each colored to match an oscillator unit. These bipolar attenuators set the amount that each oscillator unit is allowed to modulate the filter cutoff frequency. And to the right of the large filter frequency control are attenuators for how much keyboard tracking and the filter's envelope generator each affect the cutoff.

Beneath the filter settings are two identical rows of parameters, one for the filter envelope generator (FEG) and one for the amplitude envelope generator ( AEG). Each starts with a green routing button for assigning additional modulation destinations. Each is followed by standard Attack, Decay, Sustain, and Release controls. Finally, each envelope has a control for how much note velocity scales its output.

The final parameter section has three controls, representing panning, per-voice gain (with a speaker icon that glows red when drive is being applied), and a master OUT(put) level knob.

Modulation Sources:

  • FEG (filter envelope generator) [polyphonic] - The signal of this instrument's filter envelope generator module.

  • AEG (amplitude envelope generator) [polyphonic] - The signal of this instrument's amplitude envelope generator module. (The routing of this module to the instrument's amplitude is hardwired.)

Nested Device Chains:

  • Note - A chain for processing incoming note messages before they reach this device.

  • FX - A chain for processing the device's entire audio output.

Polymer

A hybrid modular synthesizer with slots for selecting one oscillator, one filter, and one envelope generator. The available modules are also used in The Grid, but with special appearances for use in Polymer.

Current available modules include:

  • 7 oscillator options: Sine, Triangle, Pulse, Saw, Phase-1, Swarm, and Wavetable

  • 5 filter options: Low-pass SK (Sallen-Key model), Low-pass LD (ladder model), SVF (state-variable, with low-, high-, and band-pass modes), XP (inspired by Mr Oberheim, with 15 filter configurations), and Comb

  • 4 envelope generator options: ADSR, AR, AD (with a looping option), and Pluck (exponential string-style decay), with a modulator routing option for controlling additional parameters

Other front panel parameters include:

  • Sub oscillator with waveform, octave, and blend controls

  • Noise blend control

  • Filter envelope (FEG) generator with ADSR controls, free modulator routing button, and toggle to also envelope the sub oscillator and noise generator outputs

  • High-pass filter cutoff

  • Controls for Pitch, Glide, Velocity Sensitivity, Gain (pre-FX chain), Panning, and Out level (post- FX chain), as well as a nested Note FX chain

Detail controls and a schematic view of Polymer are available in the Expanded Device View, which is basically a performance view of the underlying Grid patch. This view also also exposes all module panel controls, for both adjusting and modulating them.

To convert an instance of Polymer into Poly Grid: right-click on the device header of Polymer (in the Device Panel), and then choose the Convert to Poly Grid function.

Polysynth

A subtractive synthesizer with two highly dynamic oscillators, an assortment of methods for "blending" those oscillators, a noise generator, a multimode filter, various waveshaping modes, and endless possibilities.

This instrument starts with two substantial oscillator units. Oscillator 1 is found on top, and oscillator 2 is on bottom. As the oscillators are completely identical in structure and parameters, we will only discuss them once.

At the top of each oscillator unit is a dynamic waveshape display. As oscillator parameters are adjusted, this display will reflect the current waveshape generated by this oscillator.

The Pitch of an oscillator can be adjusted by a perfect fifth up or down (from -7.00 st [semitones] to 7.00 st). Below this Pitch knob is an octave switch in organ foot notation. From the default setting (8') the oscillator can be set from two octaves down (32') to three octaves up (1'), or any octave in between.

The Shape control allows you to blend three distinct waves. At the center position, you get only a sawtooth wave at the current pitch. Moving from the center position to the left cross-fades into a pulse wave that is one octave up. Moving from the center position to the right cross-fades into a saw that is one octave up. Below this Shape knob is a pulse width control that affects both the pulse wave at the left position and the sawtooth at the right position.

A Sub pulse wave that is one octave down can also be blended in. Below this Sub level knob is a pulse width control for the sub wave.

Each oscillator unit can also be synchronized to a tunable oscillator. The Sync knob controls the frequency of the master sync oscillator as an offset from the oscillator unit's pitch (from 0.00 semitones [unison; no effect] to 60.00 semitones [five octaves up]). The reset button (R) beneath the Sync knob causes the oscillator unit to return to its initial phase for each incoming note.

Next, the lower control determines the number of voices used for each note played by this oscillator unit. Settings range from 1v (one single voice per note) to 16v (16 voices per note). When more than one voice is active here, the Unison knob above becomes active, allowing you to set the maximum detuning per voice from no detuning (0 cents) up to a full semitone (100 cents). And beside Unison is a control for oscillator width, which is also enabled when the oscillator is using more than one voice. This control adjusts the panoramic spread between the various oscillator voices in use. And beneath that width control is a panning setting for this one oscillator.

The next section starts with various blend operator options at the top of the device. The operator selected determines how oscillators 1 and 2 are mixed together into a composite signal. Options on the top row offer slight variations on the standard mixing/crossfading approach, and the choices on the bottom row are a bit more exotic and surprising. While trying out these unique combinations, don't forget that this parameter too can be a modulation target. A short note on each blend operator:

  • MIX - A linear mix of oscillators 1 and 2.

  • NEG - A linear mix of oscillators 1 and a negated version of oscillator 2, potentially creating phase cancellation.

  • WIPE - A mix of oscillators 1 and 2 but using a slightly nonlinear ramp, resulting in stronger signals at the extremes.

  • AM - Amplitude modulation of oscillator 1 from oscillator 2. The 1/2 knob is essentially an attenuator for how much modulation is being applied to oscillator 1.

  • SIGN - A mix of oscillator 1 and a version of oscillator 2 that has oscillator 1's polarity applied to it.

  • MAX - A mix of oscillator 1 and a hybrid signal reflecting the maximum level of oscillator 1 and 2.

The section below is a grab bag of features that primarily relate to the blend and mixing of the instrument's generator units.

In the first row, the 1/2 knob controls the blend between oscillator 1 and oscillator 2 using the blend operator that was selected above. The Noise knob then controls the balance between both oscillators and a white noise generator. And the final knob on this row is actually a control for the filter section. This filter FM parameter allows an audible-rate oscillator of fixed frequency to modulate the filter's cutoff frequency.

The second row of this section starts with an optional high-pass filter that comes after the signal sources are blended. The first parameter contains both a cutoff frequency control and a mode selector via the drop-down menu beneath the knob. The next knob is a resonance control for this high-pass filter. And last is a pre-filter Drive control, for either amplifying or attenuating the blended signal at the end of this stage.

The third row starts with global frequency controls. The bipolar Pitch control adjusts the frequency of both oscillators. This control is set in semitones, with a range of three octaves in either direction (from -36.00 to 36.00). And the Glide setting sets the amount of time it takes for a new note to smoothly transition from the previous pitch. Last is a feedback control (FB). By engaging this setting, the spectrum of the sound expands a bit.

The instrument's filter module is found in the next section. The first control sets the filter's mode. This graphical control at top can toggle between seven filter types: a gentle low-pass filter, a 4-pole low-pass filter, a gentle band-pass filter, a 4-pole band-pass filter, a gentle high-pass filter, a 4-pole high-pass filter, and a band-reject filter, respectively.

The following row includes filter controls for the cutoff frequency (with a horizontal arrow icon, suggesting frequency), the amount of resonance being applied (with a peak-shaped icon), a waveshaping control (more on that in a moment), a keyboard tracking control that determines how much the cutoff frequency is controlled by incoming note pitches, and a control for how much and at what slope the filter envelope generator (EG) affects the cutoff frequency. (And don't forget the filter FM control that lives in the previous section and was mentioned there.)

The odd control out in that last row was the waveshaping parameter in the center. This nonlinear distortion offers several modes in the drop-down menu beneath the amount knob. If you want more or less of this effect, try adjusting the Drive control from the previous section. Or even modulate Drive and/or the shaper amount.

Below the filter section are the instrument's two envelope generators. The filter envelope generator ( FEG) is normalled to the filter cutoff frequency (via the EG attenuator knob in the filter section). The amplitude envelope generator (AEG) controls the instrument's main amplifier. Both envelope generators can also be used as modulation signals for other purposes by using their modulation routing buttons. And each envelope generator has standard Attack, Decay, Sustain, and Release controls of their own.

The final parameter section contains three toggle buttons and four knobs. The MONO button switches the synthesizer to a monophonic mode, allowing only one note to be played at a time. The next two buttons will take effect only when both MONO mode is enabled and you are playing in a legato style. The ST button is a "single trigger" option, which prevents envelopes from retriggering. And the FG button enables a "fingered glide" mode, which creates a subtle portamento between successive notes. Finally, controls for Vel(ocity sensitivity), Gain, Pan(ning), and Output level are available.

Modulation Sources:

  • FEG (filter envelope generator) [polyphonic] - The signal of this instrument's filter envelope generator module.

  • AEG (amplitude envelope generator) [polyphonic] - The signal of this instrument's amplitude envelope generator module. (The routing of this module to the instrument's amplitude is hardwired.)

Nested Device Chains:

  • Note - A chain for processing incoming note messages before they reach this device.

  • FX - A chain for processing the device's entire audio output.

Sampler

A sampler that can handle single or multiple samples in zones (with resizable mapping editors) and has multiple play modes, a multimode filter, and numerous modulation opportunities.

This instrument plays back one or more audio files as its source material. The instrument's primary section focuses on the current source material with a waveform display and numerous parameters surrounding it. The options here differ in cases where a single audio file is loaded or when multiple audio files are being used.

When only one audio file is loaded into the instrument, all relevant parameters appear within this section.

Relevant sample parameters appear above and below the waveform editor. Section labels are gray. The top row contains blue clickable icons and numeric controls for general parameters. On the bottom row are PLAY parameters in yellow and LOOP parameters in green, colors that are also used within the waveform display to visualize these settings.

Starting in the top row, first is a folder icon along with the loaded sample's filename. When the folder button is clicked, the Pop-up Browser is called up so you can select a different audio file to load. You can also drag the sample's filename into the Arranger Timeline or Clip Launcher to create an audio clip.

Next is a piano keyboard button followed by a percentage value for the amount of keyboard tracking being used. When set to 0 %, any note played will trigger the sample at its original pitch. When set to 100 %, incoming note pitches alter sample playback based on their distance from the ROOT settings (of root note and cents offset). Clicking the piano icon toggles between full keyboard tracking (100 %) and none (0 %), but values in between can be set manually.

The gain control that follows adjusts the sample's level from anywhere between -12.0 dB and +12.0 dB. And at the end of this top row is a vertical cursor icon with arrows pointing inward. When enabled, edits done on the waveform editor will snap to zero crossings.

The bottom row starts with PLAY controls. The left-facing arrow button capped with an R enables reverse mode, causing the sample to play backwards, effectively swapping the play start and play end times (and the loop points as well, when in use). Next are the aforementioned play start and play end times, both set in time units.

Four LOOP parameters come next. First are buttons to select which loop mode is in use. The three choices are the single forward arrow (no looping), the stacked forward arrows (single-direction looping), and the stacked forward and reverse arrows (ping-pong looping). Next come the loop start and loop end times, set as exact times just like their PLAY counterparts. Finally, a loop crossfade amount is set as a percentage of the available audio material.

When working in a multisample context, two editors are available. Either can be seen in the Expanded Device View (see The Expanded Device View). We will first look at what is unique about each editor and then cover the vast amount that they have in common.

Shown above is the grid editor. This display shows an overlapping view of all current zones. These individual sample zones are visualized from low to high note pitches horizontally, and they are shown vertically either by their velocity range (the standard note strike, "pin" icon on the top right) or by their select parameter range (the star icon). Within each zone is the sample's name along with a small triangle pointing down to the root key for that zone. Each zone can be moved by clicking its center and dragging, or each edge of a zone can be adjusted by clicking on that edge and dragging. While the central display stays put, all zones are in a vertically scrollable list on the left side.

In this image is the list editor. This view still uses a list of zones on the left side, but only shows those zones that are currently on-screen. The purpose of this view is to display the full details of each zone, including its key range (and root note, shown as a gray, diagonally striped rectangle) in the middle, and either its velocity or select parameter range on the right. All three of these ranges also visualize any crossfading used, allowing gradual transitions at the ends of each range. These ranges can also be interacted with, either by dragging to move an entire range, dragging from an edge to adjust the start or end points, or ALT-dragging to add a crossfade to any range.

The editors are identical in many other ways, starting with the top row of either interface.

Starting at the far left is a button to Save… the current multisample into the library. After that are filters for viewing either All Zones or only the Ungrouped zones. Next come any groups that have been created within this multisample, either by clicking the + icon at the end of this row, or by selecting multiple zones and choosing the Group function. In the examples above, groups called Piano and Flute are present. Clicking any group name will display only its zones and automatically select them all, allowing you to act upon the zones in tandem from the Inspector Panel.

At the right edge of this row are two pairs of toggles. This first pair of buttons is for switching between the grid editor and the list editor, and the second pair chooses whether velocity or the select parameter is being displayed as a secondary axis.

The list of zones on the left displays each zone's group color (in case it is part of a group) and the name of the sample it uses. The top row above the zones provides various filters for how and what to display, including a drop-down menu of sorting options, a search field for filtering zones by part of their sample name, and a toggle button showing a five-pin MIDI port that automatically selects the zone matching the last incoming note message.

The waveform editor will appear at the bottom of the Expanded Device View when only one zone is selected. All of the same parameters appear here as when in single sample mode. All of those details and more will also be present in the Inspector Panel, even when multiple zones are selected so they can be edited together. Inspector options include:

  • Group that the zone is a part of, if any.

  • Key shows the lowest and highest notes that will trigger this zone. Beneath the two note fields are corresponding Fade amount fields, showing the length of crossfade (in number of notes) on that side of the range.

  • Velocity shows the lowest and highest velocities that will trigger this zone. Beneath the two velocity fields are corresponding Fade amount fields, showing the length of crossfade (in velocity units) on that side of the range.

  • Select shows the lowest and highest select parameter values that will trigger this zone. Beneath the two select value fields are corresponding Fade amount fields, showing the length of crossfade (in select parameter units) on that side of the range.

  • Zone logic determines when this zone should sound, particularly when one note is triggering multiple zones. Options include Always play (which will always play this zone when triggered) and Round-robin (which will only play one matching zone in round-robin mode at a time).

  • Z Param 1, Z Param 2, and Z Param 3 are amounts of modulation applied via the P 1 , P 2, and P 3 modulation sources when this zone is triggered. Those sources appear in the regular Device Panel interface of Sampler when it is in multisample mode. These modulations are polyphonic, allowing you to offset any parameter by a set amount when a particular zone is triggered.

  • Root key for this zone, or the note at which no transposition is applied.

  • Fine tune amount for the root key value.

  • Keytrack amount as a percentage.

  • Gain amount applied to the sample.

  • Play start and Play end times, same as the yellow markers in the waveform view, as well as the ReverseDirection option, which effectively swaps the start and end times.

  • Looping, Loop start, Loop end, and Crossfade amounts, all of which correspond to the FADE parameters discussed earlier.

All other sections and controls of Sampler are the same, regardless of the number of samples being used.

The leftmost section in the device interface contains three parameters. The Select parameter decides which multisample is triggered (when select parameter ranges have been defined). Pitch can be shifted in semitones, with a range of three octaves in either direction (from -36.00 to +36.00). And Glide sets the amount of time that it takes for each new note to smoothly transition from the previous pitch to the current one. In musical terminology, this effect is called portamento.

Next is the play mode section. It starts with a drop-down menu of the various mode options, which will in turn determine which parameters are available below. Modes include:

  • Repitch - traditional sampler mode, where the Speed parameter changes both playback speed and pitch.

  • Cycles - a wavetable playback mode that captures periods of the waveform for playback. Speeddoesn't affect pitch, and broad Formant shifting is available as a timbre control. (While this mode excels at reshaping waveforms for pitched playback, disabling keyboard tracking for pitch can produce interesting metallic sounds when different notes are played.)

    [Note]Note

    When a WAV file with a "clm" chunk is imported into Sampler, the file will recognized it as wavetable audio, the play mode will be set to Cycles, and the Root key will use the appropriate value (which determines the size of the wavetables in use).

  • Textures - a granular playback mode. Speeddoesn't affect pitch, Grain size can be controlled, and randomized Motion can be added to the playhead for a less static sound.

Two toggle buttons round out the play mode section. The snowflake icon freezes the sampler's playhead. This gives control of the playhead to you (and any modulators you assign) via the playhead POS(ition) control in the following section. Finally, the RAM chip icon toggles whether the sample(s) used by this instance of Sampler are loaded into memory or not. There is a trade-off, of course: loading samples into RAM consumes memory, but it also allows play and loop points to be modulated.

The following OFFSETSsection contains playback modulation controls. PLAY allows you to modulate the sample start time as a percentage. (When the playhead is frozen, this parameter is renamed playhead POS[ition].) LOOP modulates the entire loop region's relative position, and LEN(gth) modulates the length of the loop to be proportionally shorter. While sample/zone parameters cannot be controlled by modulators, these performance controls can be.

The next section is for the instrument's filter module. Across the top is a row of filter mode options shown with icons (and numeric pole counts to indicated the mode's filter slope, where appropriate). Also included are controls for the filter's cutoff, the amount of resonance being applied (with a peak-shaped icon), and the amount of keyboard tracking (with a keyboard icon bookended by outward facing arrows) that is applied to the cutoff frequency, set relatively from 0 % to 200 %.

Then comes the instrument's amplitude envelope section. This envelope generator module affects the entire instrument's audio output level. The envelope generator is switchable between two types of envelopes:

  • When the drop-down menu at top is set to AHDSR, standard Attack, Decay, Sustain, and Release controls are available. Also available is a Hold control, which sets the time that the envelope pauses at full strength after the completion of the attack segment and before the decay segment begins. Additionally, the timed segments (attack, decay, and release) each have a shape control embedded in their label for changing their curve.

    [Note]Note

    When in AHDSR mode, the envelope signal can also be routed to additional modulation destinations via the modulation routing button in the top right of this section. This modulation signal is only generated when the instrument is set to use the AHDSR envelope.

  • When the mode menu at top is set to Shot, the envelope generator acts in a simple one-shot mode with controls for fade in and fade out time. This also disables looping.

    [Note]Note

    Shot mode is incompatible with playhead freeze. When both Shot and playhead freeze are enabled, this section will show a red snowflake button. When clicked, freeze mode will be disabled.

The final parameter section contains the nested device chains along with four knobs. Controls for panning (labeled L and R at the extremes), velocity sensitivity (the standard note strike, "pin" icon), gain (a speaker icon), and the Out(put) level are all available.

Modulation Sources:

  • Amplitude EG (amplitude envelope generator) [polyphonic] - The signal of this instrument's amplitude envelope generator module when it is in AHDSR mode. (The routing of this module to the instrument's amplitude is hardwired.)

  • P 1 (Zone Parameter 1; only active in multisample mode) [polyphonic] - A modulation whose amount is set by each zone and then applied while the zone is triggered.

  • P 2 (Zone Parameter 2; only active in multisample mode) [polyphonic] - A modulation whose amount is set by each zone and then applied while the zone is triggered.

  • P 3 (Zone Parameter 3; only active in multisample mode) [polyphonic] - A modulation whose amount is set by each zone and then applied while the zone is triggered.

Nested Device Chains:

  • Note - A chain for processing incoming note messages before they reach this device.

  • FX - A chain for processing the device's entire audio output.

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